So just an update.
I tried using wall cap adhesive to set the studs for the post. FAIL!!!
So I had to remove the studs I set in, re-drill them to remove any adhesive.
I did find a two part epoxy in a caulk tube. The stuff is specifically designed for anchoring into concrete and mixes itself as it goes through the tip. The tip for the tube was super long, so I was able to get lots of it cleanly into the holes. As soon as I filled a hole, I sunk the studs and I'm glad I did as the stuff started to set almost immediately.
I did a quick pull test and they seemed like they were in place. Though the cure time for the temperature was only 30 minutes, I thought I would at least wait 24 hours before bolting down the post to be on the safe side.
I also shot a glob of it on a board I had and the stuff is rock hard and couldn't believe how fast it set up.
I should have had this all done by now, but knowing the adhesive failed, I waited until the temps were high enough again to re-sink the studs. Being almost 70* today, I think I did good by waiting. That and we've been doing final fall cleanups along with another big/little landscaping job I needed to get knocked out.
If this crazy weather holds, I might still fit in another 2 hardscaping jobs before the weather goes south.