I dunno. I see what appears to be a few holes in the ground which would indicate a vole but I’ve never seen a vole lift the soil like that. Mole tunnels usually raise the soil but that’s when the soil is warm. They tend to retreat pretty deep when it gets cold.It's exactly what that is. Both will do that, but vole's are more active under the snow than moles.
Every time the ground here even starts to thaw a little, the moles start raising tunnels, and this winter, I have had them popping up out of the ground and making tunnels under the snow on top of the grass and then dig back in 50' later and I can fallow the trail from one hole to the other. Never seen that before. The damage in his pics looks mostly like vole damage though. They lift the soil and make tunnels just like that around the foundation of my shop and my back deck which is just off the ground by an inch or so.I dunno. I see what appears to be a few holes in the ground which would indicate a vole but I’ve never seen a vole lift the soil like that. Mole tunnels usually raise the soil but that’s when the soil is warm. They tend to retreat pretty deep when it gets cold.
Start poking around with a dowel rod and see if you can locate a tunnel. If you find a tunnel, you know you have a critter problem.
Nope, voles. I get the same exact damage in my own yard, and I have skunks to deal with too. If it were a skunk, there's be dug up spots everywhere including the open areas and not just right along the stones. I have a couple skunks here this year that are driving me nuts. I have had the crosshairs on them a few times, but that was when it was warmer out and windows were open. They are still out and digging around even with the snow now. I see their tracks fairly regularly in the snow, and have started to smell them again lately.Voles typically eat plants like grasses so when snow melts you will see weird reverse Mohawk patterns in the grass where they ate grass tunnels
moles tunnel undergrass/soil
to me it looks like a skunk rooting around for food
The concrete steps will warm up faster and hold eat longer in winter months meaning what skunks are looking to eat are more likely to be hanging around the edges of that concrete.
Skunks have been known to eat moles.
Skunks have big ole claws like a wolverine or badgers.
I think it was a skunk