Question: is there anyone in the Illinois (central) or Michigan (near Detroit metropolitan) areas that'd be willing to work with me on a video or a bunch of photographs demonstrating how these things are related but distinct? I'd love to try to explain this, because there are recurring questions on here and the issue never seems to go away. I wouldn't be able to work on this until the summer -- I have another project in the meantime -- but I'd be happy to do it eventually. Tipping load and ROC are standardized measures. The tipping load is the load at a prescribed bucket's load center that causes the machine to tip when the lift arms are at maximum reach. At different lift heights, the machine will tip at different loads, so the ROC and published tipping load are accurate only when the lift arms are at max reach. Breakout force: a huge discussion in and of itself. A few people have posted elaborate discussions on this already. Weight (force) to tip a machine: this is not a standardized measure because each lift height will have a corresponding amount of weight that will cause the machine to tip. With the arms all the way down, it will take a LOT of weight for the machine to tip; this is obvious because the machine feels more stable with the arms down (especially with a heavy load). At max height, the machine feels wobbly, and a considerably smaller load will cause the machine to tip.